Bibliography

This bibliography contains all publications cited in the pages of The Scyphozoa and other important references describing the biology and systematics of jellyfishes. Copyright permitting, we have linked the citations to archived PDFs. If you think a publication should be here, but is not, please write to the webmaster, including a PDF if possible. We will add it to the bibliography. Thank you!

 

Surname of first author begins with ...
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

 

 

A       return to the top of the page

Arai, M.N. 1997. A functional biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman & Hall, London.

Arneson, A.C. & C. E. Cutress. 1976. Life history of Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1831 (Cubomedusae). Pp. 227-236 in Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior (G. O. Mackie ed.). Plenum Press, New York.

Ates, R.M.L. 1989. Medusivorous Fishes, A Review. Zoologische Mededelingen 62:29-42.

Ates, R.M.L. 1991. Predation on Cnidaria by vertebrates other than fishes. Hydrobiologia 216/217:305-307.

 

 

B       return to the top of the page

Bailey, P.M., AJ. Bakker, J.E. Seymour, & J. A. Wilce. 2005. A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfish- Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana – on cytosolic Ca haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality. Toxicon. 45:233-242.

Bax, N., J. Carlton, A. Mathews-Amos, R. Haedrich, F.G. Howarth, J.E. Purcell, A. Reiser, & A. Gray. 2001. The control of biological invasions in the world's oceans. Conservation Biology 15:1234.

Behrends, G, & G. Schneider. 1995. Impact of Aurelia aurita medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) on standing stock and community composition of mesoplankton in the Kiel Bight (western Baltic Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 127:49-45.

Blanquet, R.S., & M.A. Phelan. 1987. An unusual blue mesogleal protein from the mangrove jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana. Mar. Biol. 94:423–430.

Blumer, M.J.F., L. von Salvini-Plawen, R. Kikinger, & T. Buchinger. 1995. Ocelli in a Cnidaria polyp: The ultrastructure of the pigment spots in Stylocoronella riedli (Scyphozoa, Stauromedusae). Zoomorphology 115:221-227.

Bolton, T.F., & W.M. Graham. 2004.Morphological variation among populations of an invasive jellyfish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 278:125-139.

Breitburg, D.L. A. Adamack, K.A. Rose, S.E. Kolesar, M.B. Decker, J.E. Purcell, J.E. Keister & J.H. Cowan, Jr. 2003. The pattern and influence of low dissolved oxygen in the Patuxent River, a seasonally hypoxic estuary. Estuaries 26:280-297.

Brewer, R. H. 1989. The Annual Pattern of Feeding, Growth, and Sexual Reproduction in Cyanea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Niantic River Estuary, Conneticut. Biological Bulletin 176:272-281.

Bridge, D., C.W. Cunningham, B. Schierwater, R. DeSalle, & L.W. Buss. 1992. Class-level relationships in the Phylum Cnidaria: evidence from mitochondrial genome structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89:8750-8753.

Bridge, D., C.W. Cunningham, R. DeSalle, & L.W. Buss. 1995. Class-level relationships in the Phylum Cnidaria: molecular and morphological evidence. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12:679-689.

Brierley, A.S., B.E. Axelsen, D.C. Boyer, C.P. Lynam, C.A. Didcock, H.J. Boyer, C.A.J. Sparks, J.E. Purcell, & M.J. Gibbons. 2004. Single-target echo detections of jellyfish. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 61:383-393.

Brown, C.W., R. R. Hood, Z. Li, M. B. Decker, T. Gross, J. E. Purcell & H. Wang. 2002. Forecasting system predicts presence of sea nettles in Chesapeake Bay. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 83:321, 325-326.

Bumann, D. & Jarms G. 1997 Localisation of digestion activities in the polyps of Nausithoe planulophora (Werner, 1971) and Thecoscyphus zibrowii Werner, 1984 ( Coronatae, Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 51: 477-485.

Burnett, J.W., J.E. Purcell, D.B. Learn, & T. Myer. 1999. A protocol to evaluate the blockade of jellyfish nematocysts by topical agents. Contact Dermatitis 40:55-56.

 

 

C       return to the top of the page

Carlton, J.T. 1996. Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653-1655.

Carrette, T., P. Alderlsade & J. Seymour. 2002 Cnidome composition and prey preference in two species of cubozoans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. Toxicon 40:1547-1551.

Chapman, D.M. 1999. Microanatomy of the bell rim of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Can. J. Zool. 77:34-46.

Collins, A.G. 2002. Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of cnidarian life cycles. J. Evol. Biol. 15:418-432.

Condon, R.H., M. B. Decker, & J.E. Purcell. 2001. Effects of low dissolved oxygen on survival and asexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha). Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 89-95.

Cornelius, P.F.S. 1997. Class Scyphozoa - jellyfish. Pp.418-432 in A guide to the seashores of eastern Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands (ed. M.D. Richmond). SIDA/Department for Research Cooperation SAREC, Sweden.

Coughlan, J.P., J. Seymour, & T.F. Cross. 2006. Isolation and characterisation of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cubomedusan box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Cubozoa, Cnidaria). Mol. Ecol. Notes 6:41-43.

 

 

D       return to the top of the page

Dawson, M.N. 2003. Macro-morphological variation among cryptic species of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Mar. Biol. 143:369-379. PDF. Erratum: Mar. Biol. 144:203. PDF

Dawson, M.N. 2004. Some implications of molecular phylogenetics for understanding biodiversity in jellyfishes, with an emphasis on Scyphozoa. Hydrobiologia, 530/531:249–260.

Dawson, M. N. in press. Morphological variation and systematics in the Scyphozoa: Mastigias (Rhizostomeae, Mastigiidae) - a golden unstandard? Hydrobiologia 537:185-206. Online appendix (PDF)

Dawson, M. N. 2005. Incipient speciation of Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae, Catostylidae), comparative phylogeography and biogeography in south-east Australia. J. Biogeogr. 32:515-533. PDF (This is an electronic version of an article published in Journal of Biogeography: complete citation information for the final version of the paper, as published in the print edition of Journal of Biogeography, is available on the Blackwell Synergy online delivery service, accessible via the journal's website at http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/JBI or http://www.blackwell-synergy.com.)

Dawson, M. N, & W. M. Hamner. 2003. Geographic variation and behavioral evolution in marine plankton: the case of Mastigias (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Mar. Biol. 143:1161-1174. PDF

Dawson, M.N, D.K. Jacobs. 2001. Molecular evidence for cryptic species of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Biol. Bull. 200:92-96.

Dawson, M.N, & L.E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia/Dev. Hydrobiologia 451:259-273.

Dawson, M.N, K.A. Raskoff, & D.K. Jacobs. 1998. Preservation of marine invertebrate tissues for DNA analyses. Molec. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 7:145-152.

de Bary, A. 1879. Die Erscheinung der Symbiose. Verlag Trubner, Straßburg

Devaney, D.M., & L.G. Eldredge. 1977. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. B.P. Bishop Mus. Spec. Publ. 64(1).

 

E       return to the top of the page

Eckelbarger, K.J. & R.J. Larson. 1993. Ultrastructural study of the ovary of the sessile scyphozoan, Haliclystus octoradiatus (Cnidaria: Stauromedusae). J. Morph. 218:225-236.

Ender, A., & B. Schierwater. 2003. Placozoa are not derived cnidarians: evidence from molecular morphology. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20: 130–134.

 

F       return to the top of the page

Franc, A. 1995a. Classe des cubozoaires (Cubozoa Werner, 1973). Pp. 885-922 in Traité de zoologie: anatomie, systématique, biologie volume III, fascicule 2: Cnidaires, Cténaires (D. Doumenc ed.). Masson, Paris.

Franc, A. 1995b. Classe des scyphozoaires (Scyphozoa Goette, 1887) (=Acraspeda Gegenbaur, 1856). Pp. 597-884 in Traité de zoologie: anatomie, systématique, biologie volume III, fascicule 2: Cnidaires, Cténaires (D. Doumenc ed.). Masson, Paris.

Folmer, O., M. Black, W. Hoeh, R. Lutz, & R. Vrijenhoek. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 3:294-299.

Ford, M.D., J.H. Costello, K.B. Heidelberg & J.E. Purcell. 1997. Swimming and feeding by the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 129:355-362.

 

G       return to the top of the page

Gao, S., H. Hong, & S. Zhang. 2002. Phylum Cnidaria: Class Hydrozoa - Subclass Siphonophorae, Class Scyphozoa. Fauna Sinica Invertebrata Vol. 27, 275 p.

Gershwin, L.A. 1999. Clonal and population variation in jellyfish symmetry. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 79:993-1000.

Gershwin, L.A. 2001. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Biol. Bull. 201:104-119.

Gershwin, L.A. 2005. Carybdea alata Auct. and Manokia stiasnyi, reclassification to a new family with description of a new genus and two new species. Memoirs Queensland Mus. 51:501-523.

Gershwin, L.A., & P. Alderslade. 2005. A new genus and species of box jellyfish (Cubozoa: Carybdeidae) from tropical Australian waters. The Beagle 21:27-36.

Graham, W.M., D.L. Martin, D.L. Felder, V.L. Asper, & H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions 5:53-69.

Graham, W.M., F. Pagès, & W.M. Hamner. 2001. A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review. Hydrobiologia 451:199-212.

Greenberg, N., R.L. Garthwaite, & D.C. Potts. 1996. Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 125:401-410.

Grosholz, E. 2002. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of coastal invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17:22-27.

 

 

H       return to the top of the page

Haddad Jr., V., F.L. da Silveira, J.L.C. Cardoso & A.C. Morandini. 2002. A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters. Toxicon 40(10):1445-1450. http://www.ib.usp.br/~acmorand/2002_Haddad_Jr_et_al (acidentes).pdf

Haacke, W. 1887. Die scyphomedusen des St. Vincent Golfes. Jena. Z. Naturw. 20:588-638. PDF

Haeckel, E.H.P.A. 1866. Generelle morphologie der organismenmicroform: allgemeine grundzüge der organischen formen-wissenschaft - mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte descendenz-theorie. G. Reimer, Berlin.

Haeckel, E.H.P.A. 1879. Das system der medusen: erster theil einer monographie der medusen. G. Fischer, Jena.

Hairston, N.G. Jr. 1980. The vertical distribution of diaptomid copepods in relation to body pigmentation. In: Kerfoot WC (ed) Evolution and ecology of zooplankton communities, special symposium, vol 3. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, University Press of New England, Hanover, pp. 98–110.

Hamner, W.M. 1982. Strange world of Palau’s salt lakes. National Geographic 161:264–282.

Hamner, W.M., & I.R. Hauri. 1981. Long-distance horizontal migrations of zooplankton (Scyphomedusae: Mastigias). Limnol. Oceanogr. 26:414 - 423.

Hamner, W.M.,R.W. Gilmer, & P.P. Hamner. 1982. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a stratified, saline, sulfide lake in Palau. Limnology & Oceanography 27:896–909.

Harbison, G.R., K.L. Smith, & R.H. Backus. 1973. Stygiomedusa fabulosa from the North Atlantic: its taxonomy, with a note on its natural history. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 53:615–617.

Hebert, P.D.N., A. Cywinska, S.L. Ball, & J.R. deWaard. 2003. Biological Identifications through DNA barcodes. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270:313-322.

Hedgpeth, J. 1945. Re-Examination of the Adventure of the Lion's Mane. Sci. Monthly 60:227-232.

Heeger, T., 1998. Quallen: gefährliche schönheiten. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.

Holland, B.S. 2000. Genetics of marine bioinvasions. Hydrobiologia 420: 63-71.

Holland, B.S., M.N Dawson, G.L. Crow, & D.K. Hofmann. 2004. Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple Hawaiian invasions. Marine Biology 145:1119–1128.

Hon, H.-C., S.-M. Chang, & C.-C. Wang. 1978. Haitsue (Rhopilema esculentum). Science publications, Beijing, 70 pp. (In Chinese.)

Holst, S. & Jarms, G. 2005. Responses of solitary and colonial coronate polyps (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) to sedimentation and burial. J Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 329:230-238

Hood, R.R., H.V. Wang, J.E. Purcell, E.D. Houde & L.W. Harding, Jr. 1999. Modeling particles and pelagic organisms in Chesapeake Bay: convergent features control plankton distributions. J. Geophysical Res. 104:1223-1243 and 3289-3290.

Hsieh, Y-H. P., F-M. Leong, & J. Rudloe. 2001. Jellyfish as food. Hydrobiologia 451:11-17.

Hummelinck, P.W. 1968. Caribbean scyphomedusae of the genus Cassiopea. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean islands No. 97. PDF

Huntley, M.E., & L.A. Hobson. 1978. Medusa predation and plankton dynamics in a temperate fjord, British Columbia. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35:257-261.

 

 

I       return to the top of the page

Ishii, H., & F. Tanaka. 2001. Food and feeding of Aurelia aurita in Tokyo Bay with an analysis of stomach contents and a measurement of digestion times. Hydrobiologia 451:311-320.

Ishii, H., S. Tadokoro, H. Yamanaka, & M. Omori. 1995. Population dynamics of the jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in Tokyo Bay in 1993 with determination of ATP-related compounds. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 42:171-176.

 

 

J       return to the top of the page

Janas, U., & Z. Witek. 1993. The occurrence of medusae in the southern Baltic and their importance in the ecosystem, with special emphasis on Aurelia aurita. Oceanologia 34:69-84.

Jarms, G. 1990. Neubeschreibung dreier Arten der Gattung Nausithoe (Coronata, Scyphozoa) sowie Wiederbeschreibung der Art Nausithoe marginata Kölliker 1853. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 87: 7-39.

Jarms, G. 1991. Taxonomic characters from the polyp tubes of coronate medusae (Scyphozoa, Coronata). In: Coelenterate Biology: Recent Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. R. B. Williams, P. F. S. Cornelius, R. G. Hughes & E. A. Robson (eds). Hydrobiologia 216/217: 463-470.

Jarms, G. 1997. The polyps of Coronatae (Scyphozoa), a review and some new results. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, 1995: 271-278, tabs 1-3.

Jarms, G. 2001. The life cycle of Nausithoe hagenbecki sp. nov. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 98: 13-22.

Jarms, G. 2003. Klasse Scyphozoa. In: Robert Hofrichter (Hrsg) Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie. Bd. II/1 Bestimmungsführer: Prokaryota, Protista, Fungi, Algae, Plantae, Animalia (bis Nemertea). Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin., S.514-531.

Jarms, G. 2003. Klasse Cubozoa. In: Robert Hofrichter (Hrsg) Das Mittelmeer, Fauna, Flora, Ökologie. Bd. II/1 Bestimmungsführer: Prokaryota, Protista, Fungi, Algae, Plantae, Animalia (bis Nemertea). Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin., S.531-533.

Jarms, G., A.C. Morandini & F.L. da Silveira. 2002. Polyps of the families Atorellidae and Nausithoidae (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) new to the Brazilian fauna. Biota Neotropica 2(1):11p. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v2n1/en/abstract?article+BN01202012002

Jarms, G., Morandini A.C. & Silveira, F.L. da 2002. Cultivation of polyps and medusae of Coronatae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with a brief review of important characters. Helgoland Marine Research 56:203-210. http://www.ib.usp.br/~acmorand/2002b_Jarms_et_al.pdf

Jarms, G. Tiemann, H. & Altuna Prados, A. 2003. A new bathybenthic coronate polyp from the Bay of Biscay and off Azores Nausithoe sorbei sp. nov. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 100:1-11.

Jarms, G., Tiemann, H., BĆmstedt, U., Martinussen, M. & FossĆ, H. 1999. The holopelagic life cycle of the deep sea medusa Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) Sarsia 84: 55-65.

Jarms, G., Tiemann, H. & BĆmstedt, U. 2002. Development and Biology of Periphylla (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) in a Norwegian Fjord Marine Biology 141:647-657.

 

 

 

 

K       return to the top of the page

Kikinger, R. 1992. Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) - Life History of a Stationary Population. Mar. Ecol. 13:333-362.

Kikinger, R. & L. von Salvini-Plawen. 1995. Development from polyp to Stauromedusa in Stylocoronella (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 75:899-912.

Kingsford, M.J. 1993. Biotic and abiotic structure in the pelagic environment: importance to small fishes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53:393-415.

Kingsford, M.J., Pitt, K.A., Gillanders, B.M. 2000. Management of jellyfish fisheries, with special reference to the order Rhizostomeae. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 38:85-156.

Kintner, A, S. Edwards & J. Seymour. 2005. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp., in fish. Toxicon 46: 699-708.

Kishinouye, K. 1891. Aurelia japonica, nov. sp. Zool Mag (Tokyo) 3:288-291. JPEG [English diagnosis and figure, only]

Kishinouye, K. 1898. A new medusae from the California coast. Zool. Anz. 22:44-45. PDF

Kishinouye, K. 1910. Some medusae of Japanese waters. J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. 27:1-35. PDF

Kishinouye, K. 1922. Echizen kurage, Nemopilema nomurai. Dobutsugaku Zasshi, Tokyo 34:343-346, pl. 9. (In Japanese.)

Kramp, P.L. 1956. Medusae of the Iranian Gulf. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren 118: 235-242.

Kramp, P.L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the World. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 40.

Kramp, P.L. 1965. Some medusae (mainly scyphomedusae) from Australia coastal waters. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 89:257-278

Kramp, P.L. 1968. The scyphomedusae collected by the Galathea expedition 1950-52. Vidensk. Medd. Dan. Naturhist. Foren. 131:67-98.

Kramp, P.L. 1970. Zoogeographical studies on Rhizostomeae (Scyphozoa). Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. 133:7-30.

Kreps, T.A., J.E. Purcell, & K.B. Heidelberg. 1997. Escape of the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi from the scyphomedusa predator, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 128:441-446.

 

L       return to the top of the page

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de. 1835-1845. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leurs distribution, leurs classes, leurs familles, leurs genres, et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent; précédée d'une introduction ... 2me éd. rev. et augm. par G.P. Deshayes et H. Milne Edwards. Paris: BailliŹre.

Larson, R.J. 1986. Pelagic scyphomedusae (Scyphozoa: Coronatae and Semaeostomeae) of the Southern Ocean. Biology of the Antarctic Seas. XVI. Antarct. Res. Ser. 41:59-165.

Larson, R.J, L.P. Madin, & G.R. Harbison. 1988. In situ observations of deepwater medusae in the genus Deepstaria, with a description of D. reticulum, sp. nov. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 68:689-699.

Lee, C.E. 2002. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17:386-391.

Lendenfeld, R. von. 1882. Über coelenteraten der Südsee. I. Cyanea annaskala, sp. n. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft Zoologie 37:465-552. PDF in two parts: PDFa (~4 MB) PDFb (~2 MB)

Lendenfeld, R. von. 1884. Local colour-varieties of scyphomedusae. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 9:925-928.

Lendenfeld, R. von. 1887. Descriptive catalogue of the Medusae of the Australian seas: I, Scyphomedusae. II, Hydromedusae. Australian Museum, Sydney.

Lesson, R.P. Voyage autour du monde éxecuté par ordre du Roi sur la corvette La Coquille pendant les années 1822-1825. Zoologie, vol. 2: Zoophytes. Bertrand, Paris. PDF

Linnaeus, C. von. 1746. Fauna Suecica. Sumtu & literis L. Salvii, Stockholm. JPEG

Linnaeus, C. von. 1758. Systema Naturae, tenth edition. L. Salvii, Holmiae (Stockholm). JPEG

Little, M., P. Pereira, R. Mulcahy, P. Cullen, T. Carrette & J. Seymour. 2003. Severe cardiac failure associated with presumed jellyfish sting; can we really call it severe irukandji syndrome? Anesth. Emerg. Med. 31: 642-647.

Lynam, C. P., S. J. Hay, & A. S. Brierley. 2004. Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49: 637-643.

Lynam, C. P., S. J. Hay, & A. S. Brierley. 2005. Jellyfish abundance and climatic variation: contrasting responses in oceanographically distinct regions of the North Sea and possible implications for fisheries. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 85: 435-450.

Lynam, C. P., M. J. Gibbons, B. E. Axelsen, C. A. J. Sparks, J. Coetzee, B. G. Heywood, & A. S. Brierley. 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Curr. Biol. 16: R492-R493.

 

M       return to the top of the page

Maas, O. 1903. Die Scyphomedusen der Siboga-Expedition. Sibogaä Expeditie XI: 1-91. pl. 1-12. Taf. I-XII

Maas, O. 1907. Die Scyphomedusen. Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der Zoologie 1:189-238. PDF

Mariscal, R.N. 1974. Nematocysts. Pp. 129-178 in Coelenterate Biology (eds. L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff). Academic Press, New York.

Marques, A.C., & A.G. Collins. 2004. Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology 123:xxx-xxx.

Marques, A.C., A.C. Morandini & A.E. Migotto. 2003. Synopsis of knowledge on Cnidaria Medusozoa from Brazil. Biota Neotropica 3(2):18p. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v3n2/pt/fullpaper?bn01203022003+en

Martin, L.E. 1999. The population biology and ecology of Aurelia sp. (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) in a tropical meromictic marine lake in Palau, Micronesia. PhD thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Matanoski, J.C., R.R. Hood, R.L. Owens, & J.E. Purcell. 2004. Patterns in jellyfish swimming: a novel approach to studying behavior in individuals. Mar. Biol. 145:303-313.

Matanoski, J.C., R.R. Hood, and J.E. Purcell. 2001. Characterizing the effect of prey on swimming and feeding efficiency of the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Biol. 139:191-200.

Matsumoto, G. I. 1995. Observations on the anatomy and behaviour of the cubozoan Carybdea rastonii Haacke. Marine and Freshwater Behav. Physiol. 26: 139-148.

Matsumoto, G.I. 2004. Cubozoa. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. pp. 147-152.

Matsumoto, G.I., G. L. Crow, P. F. S. Cornelius & B. A. Carlson. 2002. Discovery of the cubomedusa Carybdea sivickisi (Cubozoa: Carybdeidae) in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000 Part 2: notes 69: 44-46.

Matsumoto, G.I., K.A. Raskoff, & D.J. Lindsay. 2003. Tiburonia granrojo n. sp., a mesopelagic scyphomedusa from the Pacific Ocean representing the type of a new subfamily (class Scyphozoa: order Semaeostomeae: family Ulmaridae: subfamily Tiburoniinae subfam. nov.). Mar. Biol. 143:73-77. PDF

Mayer, A.G. 1910. Medusae of the World, III: the Scyphomedusae. Carnegie Institute, Washington.

McCloskey, L.R., L. Muscatine, & F.P. Wilkerson. 1994. Daily photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon budgets in a tropical marine jellyfish (Mastigias sp.). Marine Biology 119:13–22.

Medlin, L., H.J. Elwood, S. Stickel, & M.L. Sogin. 1988. The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like ribosomal RNA-coding regions. Gene 71:491-499.

Mianzan, H.W. , & P.F.S. Cornelius. 1999. Cubomedusae and Scyphomedusae. Pp. 513-559 in South Atlantic Zooplankton (ed. B. Boltovskoy). Backhuys, Leiden.

Migotto, A.E., A.C. Marques, A.C. Morandini & F.L. da Silveira. 2002. Checklist of the Cnidaria Medusozoa of Brazil. Biota Neotropica 2(1):35p. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v2n1/pt/fullpaper?BN01102012002+en

Mills, C. E., 1995. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores as planktivorous predators in changing global ecosystems. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 52: 575-581.

Mills, C.E. 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451:55-68.

Möller, H. 1979. Significance of coelentrates in relation to other plankton organisms. Meeresforsh. 27:1-18.

Morandini, A.C. 2003. Deep-Sea medusae (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) from Bahia coast (Western South Atlantic, Brazil). Mitteilungen aus der hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 100:13-25.

Morandini, A.C. & G. Jarms. 2005. New combinations for two coronate polyp species (Atorellidae and Nausithoidae, Coronatae, Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). Contributions to Zoology 74(1):117-123.

Morandini, A.C. & F.L. da Silveira. 2001. Sexual reproduction of Nausithoe aurea (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Gametogenesis, egg release, embryonic development, and gastrulation. Scientia Marina 65(2):139-149.

Morandini, A.C. & F.L. da Silveira. 2001. New observations and new record of Nausithoe aurea (Scyphozoa, Coronatae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 41(27):519-527.

Morandini, A.C., D. Ascher, S.N. Stampar & J.F.V. Ferreira. 2005. Cubozoa e Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) de águas costeiras do Brasil. Iheringia, Série Zoologia 95(3):281-294. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/isz/v95n3/26542.pdf

Morandini, A.C., S.R. Martorelli, A.C. Marques & F.L. da Silveira. 2005. Digenean metacercaria (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae) parasitizing “coelenterates” (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa and Ctenophora) from the Southeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 53(1-2):39-45. http://www.ib.usp.br/~acmorand/2005_Morandini_et_al_Digenea.pdf

Morandini, A.C., F.L. da Silveira & P.F.S. Cornelius. 2006. Redescription of Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the Brazilian coast, with designation of a neotype. Zootaxa 1135:29-48. http://www.ib.usp.br/~acmorand/2006_Morandini_et_al_Chrysaora.pdf

Morandini, A.C., F.L. da Silveira & G. Jarms. 2004. The life cycle of Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) with notes on the scyphistoma stage of three other species. Hydrobiologia 530/531:347-354. http://www.ib.usp.br/~acmorand/2004_Morandini et al.pdf

Muscatine, L., & R.E. Marian. 1982. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic medusae. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27:910-917.

Muscatine, L., F.P. Wilkerson, & L.R. McCloskey. 1986. Regulation of population density of symbiotic algae in a tropical marine jellyfish (Mastigias sp.). Marine Ecology Progress Series 32:279–290.

 

 

N       return to the top of the page

Nair, K.K. 1946. Medusae of Travancore and their correlation with inshore fishing . Proc. First Indian Sci. Congress 32:97. PDF

Nemazie, D.A., J.E. Purcell, & P.M. Glibert. 1993. Ammonium excretion by gelatinous zooplankton and their contribution to the ammonium requirements of microplankton in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Biol. 116:451-458.

Neppi, V. 1915. Vorlaufige Mitteilun uber die wahrend der Terminfahrten auf S. M. Schiff "Najade" gesammeten Adriatischen Medusen. Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien 52:2-5.

 

 

O       return to the top of the page

Oguz, T., H.W. Ducklow, J.E. Purcell, & P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. 2001. Modeling the response of top-down control exerted by gelatinous carnivores in the Black Sea pelagic food web. J. Geophys. Res. 106:4543-4564.

Olesen, N.J., J.E. Purcell, & D.K. Stoecker. 1996. Feeding and growth by ephyrae of scyphomedusae Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 137:149-159.

Omori, M. 1981. Edible jellyfish (Scyphomedusae: Rhizostomeae) in the Far East Waters: A brief review of the biology and fishery. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 28:1-11.

Omori, M, & E. Nakano. 2001. Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia. Hydrobiologia 451:19-26.

Omori, M. & M. Kitamura. 2004. Taxonomic review of three Japanese species of edible jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Plankton Biol. Ecol. 51:36-51.

Östman, C. 2000. A guideline to nematocyst nomenclature and classification, and some notes on the systematic value of nematocysts. Scientia Marina. 64 (Supp. 1):31-46.

Otto, J.J. 1976. Early development and planula movement in Haliclystus (Scyphozoa: Stauromedusae). Pp. 319-329 in Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior (G.O. Mackie ed.). Plenum Press, New York.

Otto, J.J. 1978. The settlement of Haliclystus planulae. Pp. 13-22 in Settlement and metamorphosis of marine invertebrate larvae (eds. F.-S. Chia & M. Rice). Elsevier, New York. .

 

 

P       return to the top of the page

Pagès, F., J.-M. Gili, & J. Bouillon. 1992. Planktonic cnidarians of the Benguela Current. Scientia Marina 56 (Supp. 1):1-144.

Pagès, F. 2000. Biological associations between barnacles and jellyfish with emphasis on the ectoparasitism of Alepas pacifica (Lepadomorpha) on Diplulmaris malayensis (Scyphozoa). J. Nat Hist. 34:2045-2056.

Panikkar, N.K., & R.G. Aiyar. 1939. Observations on breeding in brackish-water animals of Madras - Acromitus flagellatus. Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci. 9(B): 347-349. PDF

Phelan, M.A., J.L. Matta, Y.M. Reyes, R. Fernando, R.A. Boykins, & R.S. Blanquet. 2006. Associations between metals and the blue mesogleal protein of Cassiopea xamachana. Mar. Biol. 149:307-312.

Pitt, K.A., 2000. Life history and settlement preferences of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Marine Biology 136:269–279.

Pitt, K.A., & M.J.Kingsford. 1999. Jellyfish. In Under Southern Seas (ed. N.L. Andrew), pp. 98–105. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.

Pitt, K.A., & M.J. Kingsford. 2000. Geographic separation of stocks of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Rhizostomeae) in New South Wales, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 136:143-155.

Pitt, K.A., & M.J. Kingsford. 2000. Reproductive biology of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Rhizostomeae). Marine Biology 137:791–799.

Pitt, K.A., & M.J. Kingsford. 2003. Temporal and spatial variation in recruitment and growth of medusae of the scyphozoan jellyfish, Catostylus mosaicus, (C. Scyphozoa, O. Rhizostomeae). Marine and Freshwater Research 54:117–125.

Pitt, K.A., & M.J. Kingsford. 2003. Temporal variation in the virgin biomass of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). Fisheries Research 63:303–313.

Podar, M., S.H. Haddock, M.L. Sogin, & G.R. Harbison. 2001. A molecular phylogenetic framework for the phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA genes. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21: 218-230.

Purcell, J.E. 1991. A review of cnidarians and ctenophores feeding on competitors in the plankton. Hydrobiologia 216/217:335-342.

Purcell, J.E. 1992. Effects of predation by the scyphomedusan Chrysaora quinequecirrha on zooplankton populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 87:65-76.

Purcell, J.E. 1995. Gelatinous Zooplankton. Pp. 125-133 In: Living Resources of the Delaware Estuary. L.E. Dove and R. M. Nyman (eds.). The Delaware Estuary Program.

Purcell, J.E. 1997. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: Selective predation, feeding rates and effects on prey populations. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 73:125-137.

Purcell, J.E. 2003. Predation on zooplankton by large jellyfish (Aurelia labiata, Cyanea capillata, Aequorea aequorea) in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 246:137-152.

Purcell, J.E. 2005. Climate effects on formation of jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 85:461-476.

Purcell, J.E. 2005. Jellyfish may benefit from global changes. JMBA Global Mar. Environ. 2: 30-31.

Purcell, J.E., & M.N. Arai. 2001. Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fishes: A review. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 27-44.

Purcell, J.E. and J.H. Cowan, Jr. 1995. Predation by the scyphomedusan Chrysaora quinquecirrha on Mnemiopsis leidyi ctenophores. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 128:63-70.

Purcell, J.E. & M.B. Decker. 2005. Effects of climate on relative predation by scyphomedusae and ctenophores on copepods in Chesapeake Bay during 1987-2000. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50: 376-387. http://aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_50/issue_1/0376.pdf

Purcell, J.E., & M.V. Sturdevant. 2001. Prey selection and dietary overlap among zooplanktivorous jellyfish and juvenile fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 210: 67-83.

Purcell, J.E., E.D. Brown, K.D.E. Stokesbury, L.H. Haldorson, and T.C. Shirley. 2000. Aggregations of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata: Abundance, distribution, association with age-0 walleye pollock, and behaviors promoting aggregation in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 195:145-158.

Purcell, J.E., D.L. Breitburg, M.B. Decker, W.M. Graham, M.J. Youngbluth, & K.A.Raskoff. 2001. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores in low dissolved oxygen environments. Pp. 77-100 in Coastal hypoxia: consequences for living resources and ecosystems (Vol. 58, N.N. Rabalais & R.E. Turner eds.). American Geophysical Union, Washington D. C.

Purcell, J.E., F.P. Cresswell, D.G. Cargo, & V.S. Kennedy. 1991. Differential ingestion and digestion of bivalve larvae by the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha and by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Biol. Bull. 180:103-111.

Purcell, J.E., A. Malej and A. Benovic. 1999. Potential links of jellyfish to eutrophication and fisheries. In: Ecosystems at the land-sea margin: drainage basin to coastal sea, T.C. Malone, A. Malej, L.W. Harding, Jr., N. Smodlaka and R.E.Turner (eds.), Coastal and Estuarine Studies 55:241-263.

Purcell, J.E., D.A. Nemazie, S.E. Dorsey, E.D. Houde, & J.C. Gamble. 1994. Predation mortality of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) eggs and larvae due to scyphomedusae and ctenophores in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 114:47-58.

Purcell, J.E., M.V. Sturdevant, & C.P. Galt. 2005. A review of appendicularians as prey of fish and invertebrate predators. In Gorsky, G., M.J. Youngbluth and D. Deibel (Eds.), Response of marine ecosystems to global change: Ecological impact of appendicularians. Contemporary Publishing International, Paris, pp. 359-435.

Purcell, J.E., J.R. White, & M.R. Roman. 1994. Predation by gelatinous zooplankton and resource limitation as potential controls of Acartia tonsa copepod populations in Chesapeake Bay. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39:263-278.

Purcell, J.E., J.R. White, D.A. Nemazie & D.A. Wright. 1999. Temperature, salinity and food effects on asexual reproduction and abundance of the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 180:187-196.

 

Q       return to the top of the page

Quoy, J.R.C. & Gaimard, J.P., 1824. Des zoophytes ou animaux rayonnés. In Voyage autour de monde … exécuté sur l'Uranie et la Physicienne, pendant 1817-20. Zoologie IV, (ed. M.L. de Freycinet), pp. 559-571. Chez Pillet Ainé, Imprimeur-Libraire: Paris.

 

 

R       return to the top of the page

Ramasamy, S., G.K. Isbister, J. E. Seymour & W. C. Hodgson. 2003 The in vitro effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom. Toxicon. 41:703-711.

Raskoff, K.A. 2001. The impact of El Niño events on populations of mesopelagic hydromedusae. Hydrobiologia 451:121-129. PDF

Raskoff, K.A. 2002. Foraging, prey capture, and gut contents of the mesopelagic narcomedusa, Solmissus spp. (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Mar. Biol. 141:1088-1107. PDF

Raskoff, K.A. & G.I. Matsumoto. 2004. Stellamedusa ventana, a new mesopelagic scyphomedusae from the eastern Pacific representing a new subfamily, the Stellamedusinae. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 84:37-42. PDF

Raskoff, K.A., R.R. Hopcroft, & J.E. Purcell. 2004. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores of the Arctic Ocean: in situ ROV observations under the ice. Polar Biol. 28:207-217.

Raskoff, K.A., F.A. Sommer, W.M. Hamner, & K. Cross. 2003. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton. Biol. Bull. 204:68-80. PDF

Repelin, R. 1967. Stygiomedusa stauchi n. sp. Scyphomeduse géante des profondeurs. Cah. ORSTOM Ser. Oceanogr. 5:23–28.

Rojas, A. & R.F. Doolittle. 2002. The occurrence of type S1A Serine proteases in sponge and jellyfish. J. Mol. Evol. 55:790-794.

Rouse, G., & K.A. Pitt. 2000. Ultrastructure of the sperm of Catostylus mosaicus and Phyllorhiza punctata (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria): implications for sperm terminology and the inference of reproductive mechanisms. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 8:23–34.

Rudloe, J. 1997. Harvesting and processing of cannonball jellyfish: Instruction and Training Manual. Prepared by P.G. Johnson & Associates Inc. Crawfordville, Florida 32327.

Ruiz, G.M., T.K. Rawlings, F.C. Dobbs, L.A. Drake, T. Mullady, A. Huq, & R.R. Colwell. 2000. Global spread of microorganisms by ships. Nature 408:49.

Russell, F.S. 1959. A viviparous deep-sea jellyfish. Nature 4698:1527–1528.

Russell, F.S. 1967. On a remarkable new scyphozoan. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 47:469–473.

Russell, F. S. 1970. The medusae of the British Isles. II Pelagic Scyphozoa with a supplement to the first volume on hydromedusae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Russell, F.S., W.J. Rees. 1960. The viviparous scyphomedusa Stygiomedusa fabulosa Russell. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 39:303–317.

 

 

S       return to the top of the page

Sax, D.F. 2001. Latitudinal gradients and geographic ranges of exotic species: implications for biogeography. J. Biogeogr. 28:139-150.

Schroth, W., G. Jarms, B. Streit, & B. Schierwater. 2002. Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp. BioMed Central Evol Biol 2:1-10. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/2/1

Seutin, G., B.N. White, & P.T. Boag. 1991. Preservation of avian blood and tissue samples for DNA analyses. Can. J. Zool. 69:82 - 90.

Seymour J.E. 2002. One touch of venom. Am. Nat. Hist. 9:72-75

Seymour, J., T. Carrette, P. Cullen, R. Mulcahy, M. Little & P. Pereira. 2002. The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings. Toxicon.40:1503-1505

Shorten, M., J. Davenport, J.E. Seymour, M.C. Cross, T.J. Carrette, G. Woodward, & T. F. Cross. 2005. Kinematic analysis of swimming in Australian box jellyfish - Chiropsalmus sp. and Chironex fleckeri (Cubozoa, Cnidaria, Chirodropidae). J. Zoology 267:371-380.

Silveira, F.L. da & A.C. Morandini. 1996. Stephanoscyphistoma corniformis (Komai, 1936) (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Coronatae) from the north coast of Sčo Paulo, Brazil. Semina, Ciźncias Biológicas/Saúde 17(2):137-145.

Silveira, F.L. da & A.C. Morandini. 1997. Nausithoe aurea n. sp. (Scyphozoa, Coronatae,

Silveira, F.L. da & A.C. Morandini. 1998. Asexual reproduction in Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788) (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) by planuloid formation through strobilation and segmentation. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111(4):781-794.Nausithoidae), a species with two pathways of reproduction after strobilation: sexual and asexual. Contributions to Zoology 66(4):235-246.

Silveira, F.L. da & A.C. Morandini. 1998. New observations on dormancy mechanisms in Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788) (Scyphozoa: Coronatae). Boletim do Museu Nacional, Nova Série, Zoologia 393:1-7.

Silveira, F.L. da, G. Jarms & A.C. Morandini. 2003. Experiments in nature and laboratory observations with Nausithoe aurea (Scyphozoa: Coronatae) suggest the concept of perennation by tissue saving and confirm dormancy. Biota Neotropica 2(2):25p. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v2n2/pt/download?article+BN02202022002+item

Smith, D.C., & A.E. Douglas. 1987. The biology of symbiosis. Edward Arnold, London.

Sötje, I. & Jarms, G. 1999. Description of Thecoscyphus zibrowii WERNER, 1984 (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) with remarks on the life cycle. Mitt. hamb. zool. Mus. Inst. 96: 5-13.

Southcott, R.V. 1967. Revision of some Carybdeidae (Scyphozoa: Cubomedusae), including a description of the jellyfish responsible for the "Irukandji syndrome". Aust. J. Zool. 15:651-671.

Stiasny, G. 1919. Die scyphomedusen-sammlung des naturhistorischen reichsmuseums in leiden. II. Stauromedusen, Coronatae, Semaeostomae. Zool. Meded. 5:66-98. PDF

Stiasny, G. 1921a. Studien über rhizostomeen. In Capita Zoologica (E.D. van Oort, ed.). Martinus Njhoff, Gravenhage.

Stiasny, G. 1921b. Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia 1910-1913: XXX, Scyphomedusen. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 62:1-12. PDF

Stiasny, G. , & H. van der Maaden. 1943. Über scyphomedusen aus dem Ochotskishen und Kamtschatka Meer nebst einer kritik der Genera Cyanea und Desmonema. Zool. Jb. Abt. Syst. 76:227-266. PDF

Swartz, O. 1788. Medusa unguiculata och Actinia pusilla. PDF

 

 

T       return to the top of the page

Taylor, D., P. Pereira, J. Seymour & K.Winkel. 2002 A sting from an unknown jellyfish species associated with persistent symptoms and raised troponin I levels. Emerg. Med. 14:175-80

Thiel, M.E. 1966. Beitrag zur kenntnis westafrikanischer hydro- und scyphomedusen. Mitt. Hamburg. Mus. Inst. 63:3-27.

Thiel, M.E. 1978. Die postephyrale entwicklung des gastrovascularsystems der rhizostomida nebst ergänzungen und berichtigungen zu den Stiasnyschen typen dieser entwicklung, zugleich ein zeugniz für das Haeckelsche biogenetische grundgesetz. Sonderdruck Z. f. Zool. Syst. Evol. 16:267-289.

Tiemann, H., Sötje, I., Jarms, G., Paulmann, C., Epple, M. & Hasse, B. 2002. Calcium sulphate hemihydrate in statoliths of deep-sea medusae. J. Chemical Soc., Dalton Transactions 2002:1266-1268

Towanda, T., & E.V. Thuesen. 2006. Ectosymbiotic behavior of Cancer gracilis and its trophic relationships with its host Phacellophora camtschatica and the parasitoid Hyperia medusarum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 315:221-236.

Tronolone, V.B., A.C. Morandini & A.E. Migotto. 2002. On the occurrence of scyphozoan ephyrae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae) in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Biota Neotropica 2(2):18p. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v2n2/pt/fullpaper?bn02102022002+en

Tubb, J.A. 1946. On the occurrence of Alepas pacifica Pilsbry in Tasmania. Records Aust. Mus. 11:383-385.

 

 

U       return to the top of the page

Uchida, T. 1926. The anatomy and development of a rhizostome medusa, Mastigias papua L. Agassiz, with observations on the phylogeny of Rhizostomae. J. Fac. Sci. Tokyo Univ. sect. IV: Zool. 1:45-95.

Uchida, T. 1929. Studies on the Stauromedusae and Cubomedusae, with special reference to their metamorphosis. Jap. J. Zool. 2:103-193.

Uchida, T. 1947. Some medusae from the central Pacific. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. ser. 6: Zool. 9:297-319. PDF

Uchida, T. 1954. Distribution of scyphomedusae in Japanese and its adjacent waters. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. ser. 6: Zool. 12:209-219.

Uchida, T. 1965. Scyphozoa. Pp. 230-239 in New illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan ( K. Okada, S. Uchida, & T. Uchida, eds.). Hokuryukan, Tokyo. (In Japanese.)

 

V       return to the top of the page

Vanhöffen, E. 1888. Untersuchungen uber semaostome und rhizostome medusen. Bibliotheca Zoologica. PDF

 

 

W       return to the top of the page

Walker, W.F. & W.F. Doolittle. 1983. 5S rRNA sequences from four marine invertebrates and implications for base pairing models of metazoan sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:5159-5164.

Werner, B. 1975. Bau und Lebensgeschichte des Polypen von Tripedalia cystophora (Cubozoa, class. nov., Carybdeidae) und seine Bedeutung für die Evolution der Cnidaria. Helgolaender Wiss. Meeresunters. 27:461-504.

Wilkinson, D.M. 2001. At cross purposes. Nature 412: 485.

Wright, D.A. and J.E. Purcell. 1997. Effect of salinity on ionic shifts in mesohaline scyphomedusae, Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Biol. Bull.192:332-339.

 

 

X       return to the top of the page

 

 

Y       return to the top of the page

 

 

Z       return to the top of the page

Zak, B. 1971. Anomalies in body structure of jelly-fish Aurelia aurita L. in Southern Baltic. Przegl. Zool. 15:57-65.