Class CUBOZOA Werner 1975

Order CUBOMEDUSAE Haeckel 1877

The taxonomic rank and phylogenetic position of the box jellyfishes has been much debated. They were originally considered to be an order (Cubomedusae Haeckel 1877) in the Class Scyphozoa (e.g. Mayer 1910; Kramp 1961). In the mid-1970's, however, they were given the status of a class (Cubozoa Werner 1975; see also Mianzan & Cornelius 1999) on the basis of morphological differences. Recent molecular data, however, raised a paradox in that Class Cubozoa was more closely related than Order Stauromedusae to the other scyphozoan orders Coronatae, Semaeostomeae, and Rhizostomeae, i.e. "Scyphozoa" was paraphyletic (e.g. Collins 2002). This issue has now been resolved with elevation of stauromedusae to Class Staurozoa (e.g. Marques & Collins 2004; Dawson in press). The list of families, genera, and species below is based largely on Kramp (1961), Southcott (1967), Pagès et al. (1992), and Mianzan & Cornelius (1999). The group is currently the subject of several morphological and molecular investigations which should help to clarify species relationships and boundaries.

Type = *

Family (2) Genus (8) Species (19) Image
Carybdeidae Gegenbaur 1856 Carukia Southcott 1967 barnesi Southcott 1967 *  
  Carybdea Péron & Lesueur 1809 alata Reynaud 1830  
    marsupialis (Linné 1758) *  
    rastoni Haacke 1886  
    sivickisi Stiasny 1926 image
    xaymacana Conant 1897  
  Manokia Southcott 1967 stiasnyi (Bigelow 1938) *  
  Tamoya Müller 1859 haeckeli Southcott 1967  
    haplonema Müller 1859 * image
  Tripedalia Conant 1897 binata Moore 1988  
    cystophora Conant 1897 * image
Chirodropidae Haeckel 1877 Chirodropus Haeckel 1880 gorilla Haeckel 1880 *  
    palmatus Haeckel 1880  
    sp. Stiasny 1922  
  Chironex Southcott 1956 fleckeri Southcott 1956 *  
  Chiropsalmus L. Agassiz 1862 buitendijki Horst 1907  
    quadrigatus Haeckel 1880 image
    quadrumanus (Müller 1859) * image
    zygonema Haeckel 1880  


Compiled by M.N Dawson, L.A. Gershwin, G. Jarms, H. Mianzan, A.C. Morandini.